Jain Questions

If you have any questions about Jainism – Share your questions as comments beow and We will try to add them after getting answers.

Why do Jains fast?
Fasts may be done as a penance, especially for Jain Monks (Maharaj Saheb). In Jainsim, a person’s life is a reflection of his karmas. Happiness or comforts usually we don’t notice but any distressful situation to extreme calamities, we always try to find out solutions. Shastras indicate either you suffer through with sambhav or adopt a way of austerity, to cut it short. It can be done before karmas start manifesting. More or less like prevention. The prevention is undertaken through penance. The other benefits are self-control and a healthier, joyful life. Fasting also purifies body and mind, and reminds the practitioner of Mahavira’s emphasis on renunciation and asceticism, because Mahavira spent a great deal of time fasting. It is not sufficient for a Jain simply to not eat when fasting. They must also stop wanting to eat. If they continue to desire food the fast is pointless.

What do you mean by Tivihar Upvas?
In Upvas, Don’t eat or drink anything except boiled water. Boiled water can be drunk from Porsi to sunset Only. By doing Upvas, a person can shed karmas equivalent to 1000 billion years of hell life – i.e. karma nirjara.

What do you mean by Chauvihar Upvas?
Chauvihar or Chouvihar Upvas means you do not drink or eat anything, not even boiled water.

What is Navkarsi ?
Don’t eat or drink anything untill 48 minutes after the sunrise, then sit at one place , fold your hand (Muththi vaalavi or handful), recite Navkar 3 times and then take food or water. By doing navkarsi one day, a person can shed karmas equivalent to 100 years of torture in hell – i.e. karma nirjara.

What is Pachkan?
Pachkan is basically an oath. It means you have committed to something be it fast or not eating after sunset.

What is Porsi?
Don’t eat or drink anything untill One Prahar time after the sunrise, then sit at one place , fold your hand(Muththi vaalavi or handful), recite Navkar 3 times and then take food or water. By doing Porsi one day, a person can shed karmas equivalent to 1,000 years of hell life – i.e. karma nirjara.

What is Prahar?
Take total daytime(i.e. If sunrise is at 6:45 am and sunset is at 7:15 pm then whole daytime is 12:30 hours), divide it by four then it will give one prahar time. One Prahar = Total daytime/4 i.e. if daytime is 12 hours and 30 minutes then One Prahar = (12:30)/4 = 3:07:30 (3 Hours 7 Minutes 30 Seconds)

What is Sadhporsi?
Don’t eat or drink anything untill 1.5 Prahar time after the sunrise, then sit at one place , fold your hand(Muththi vaalavi or handful), recite Navkar 3 times and then take food or water. By doing Porsi one day, a person can shed karmas equivalent to 10,000 years of hell life – i.e. karma nirjara.

What is Purimaddha?
Don’t eat or drink anything untill Two Prahars time after the sunrise, then sit at one place , fold your hand (Muththi vaalavi or handful), recite Navkar 3 times and then take food or water. By doing Porsi one day, a person can shed karmas equivalent to 100,000 years of hell life – i.e. karma nirjara.

What is Avadhha?
Don’t eat or drink anything untill Three Prahar time after the sunrise, then sit at one place , fold your hand (Muththi vaalavi or handful), recite Navkar 3 times and then take food or water.

What is Ayambil?
In Ayambil or Aaimbil you eat only once in a day, Don’t eat any Vigai-Fruits-Vegetables, sitting at one place within less than 48 minutes. Other than that dont eat or drink anything except boiled water. Boiled water cab be drunk up to sunset Only. By doing Ayambil, a person can shed karmas equivalent to 100 billion years (1000 crore years) of hell life – i.e. karma nirjara. Navpad Ni Oli means doing 9 Ayambils during Ashwin or Chaitri Month.

What is Nivi?
Don’t eat or drink anything untill One Prahar time after the sunrise, then sit at one place , fold your hand (Muththi vaalavi or handful), recite Navkar 3 times and then take food or water.

What is Ekasanu?
In Ekasan, Eat only once in a day, sitting at one place within less than 48 minutes. Other than that dont eat or drink anything except boiled water. Boiled water cab be drunk up to sunset Only. By doing Ekashan, a person can shed karmas equivalent to 1 million years (10 Lac) of hell life – i.e. karma nirjara.

What is Biyasanu?
Don’t eat or drink anything untill Two Prahars time after the sunrise, then sit at one place , fold your hand (Muththi vaalavi or handful), recite Navkar 3 times and then take food or water.

What is Chauvihar?
In Chauvihar, one does not take any food or any liquids after the sunset until the sunrise next day.

What is Tivihar?
In Tivihar one does not take food of any kind including liquids except water after the sunset until the sunrise of next day but can take water.

What is Duvihar?
In Duvihar one does not take food of any kind including liquids except water and medicine after the sunset until the sunrise of next day but can take water and medicine.

What is Panhar?
In Panhar, one does not take any food or any liquids after the sunset until the sunrise next day. This pachakhan is taken when one has done Tivihar Upvas, Ayambil, Nivi, Ekasanu or Biyasan

What is Dharana Abhigrah?
In Dharana Abhigrah is customised pachakhan. One can decide any kind of tyag based on God’s way and take pachakhan. i.e. One can decide that he/she will not eat Sweets for 5 days. Then they should decide it and take Dharana Abhigrah pachakhan.

What is Unodari / Unodri ?
Always eat little less than, what you desire and need to eat. We are limiting
ourselves partially. At times this may become more difficult, as once you start eating. Scientifically, we all understand this is a healthy practice.

What do you mean by Santhara?
Santhara or Sallenkhana is a procedure in which a Jain stops eating with the intention of preparing for death. This is different from suicide as it is not taken in passionate mood of anger, deceit or other emotions, but is undertaken only when the body is no longer capable of serving its owner as a instrument of sprituality and when inevitability of death is a matter of undisputed certainty. The intention is to purify the body, and remove all thought of the physical things from the mind. As well as giving up food and water, the ascetic abandons all desires and dislikes so that they can concentrate exclusively on the spiritual as they approach death.

What is Vigai?
There are Six types of Vigais, namely Milk, Yogurt, Jaggary, Ghee, Oil and Fried Food. Vigai Tyag could be Kacho (Partial) or Mul (Complete). This helps us to control temptation for eating food, which helps you to cut down passions.

What is Kayakiesh?
Kayakiesh means to place body under stressful environment or situation e.g. cold, heat, walking bare feet, hunger, kesh loach etc. This helps us to reduce attachment to body.

What is Varshitap?
The duration of this tap is from Fagan krushna aathum to vaishakh shukla trija in next year. This consists of one day of besana and one day of upwas on alternate days for the complete year. If the day falls on the tithi, an upwas must be observed causing two consecutive days of fasting. Parnas are done with cane sugar juice in palitana, hastinapur, or any tirth where Shri Adinath’s idol is installed

What is Vardhaman Tap?
For this Oli, you need to keep incrementing the Ayambils separated by 1 Upvas – the first 20 days should be done continously in following order: 1 Ayambil – 1 Upvas, 2 Ayambil – 1 Upvas, 3 Ayambil – 1 Upvas, 4 Ayambil – 1 Upvas, 5 Ayambil – 1 Upvas – you can then take a break and start whenever you can with 6 Ayambil – 1 Upvas, 7 Ayambil – 1 Upvas, etc. The entire Oli completes when you finish 100 Ayambil and 1 Upvas. This usually takes more than 14 years to complete in total with 5050 Ayambils and 100 Fasts.

What is Vish sthanak Tap?
All Tirthankars perform this austerity in 3rd last life. There are 20 different Pad and in each you do a minimum of 20 Akasnas to Authum (3 fasts in row) in six months along with other rituals and essentials

What is Siddhi Tap?
One fast and one besana, two fasts and one besana, three fasts and one besana and so on to include eight fasts and one besana are performed during the paryushana. Also some rituals are involved.

Comments

118 responses to “Jain Questions”

  1. detail of besana is wrong rectify it. in besana one can eat for two time before sunset

    1. Thanks Shaileshbhai, I will have this checked and rectified.

      1. Vipul

        This is not corrected so far as on 16 March 2019

        Please rectify Asap

    2. Urvi shah

      Can you pls share the detais of kshur samudra tap…I want to start that frm tomw

  2. Rashmi subodh

    thank you very much for the valuable information.

  3. Manisha

    Anyboday knows how many besana is equal to 1 upvas please ?

    1. 4 besana equals 1 upvaas

      1. Naren

        One upvaas is equal to two ayambil, or four ekasana or eight besana.

    2. Suraj c jain

      8 Beasana is equally 1 upvaas.

      1. Milan

        Please guide. Where can I find the proof of this? Any Jain scripture confirms this?

    3. Kritika Sagarawat

      8 biyasnas equal to 1 upvas

  4. mahima

    jains do not eat butter. so pls. don’t use butter in the recipies. butter is like u r eating potato!!…..

    1. Hi Mahima, Just like we have updated the recipe of Jain Cheese, which can be made at home within few hours… I will soon update Butter recipe as well which can be used in any of our recipes.

      1. Daxa

        Hi.. Hoping you will be in saata…
        Can I please ask why butter is not Jain? How about ghee…?
        Being vegan I do not use these items anyway but good to know how and why butter is not Jain

    2. Jainam Shah

      Yes, absolutely right. We’ll stated.

  5. Parul

    I want recipie of aymbil oli

    1. Daxa

      please and thank you go a long long way when requesting something from someone.

      Thanks

  6. Nemchand Bhagwanji Shah

    very useful information

  7. reena

    i like all your receipes please let me know the receipe of b read making at home

    1. Hi Reena,

      We have one bread making recipe which is http://www.jainfoodie.com/recipe/jain-jalapenos-and-herbs-bread/ but we still do not have a proper jain bread recipe which you can use for pav bhaji etc. I will have it uploaded soon as soon as we get something

  8. Sheela Jain

    What are 20 different Pad (names and their detailed explanation) as mentioned in Vish sthanak Tap?

    1. Jain Foodie

      Hi Sheela,

      I will need to find answer for you – will let you know as soon as I know.

      1. Carole Quinn

        Are Jains allowed to drive automobiles? So many insects are killed on the windscreens.

  9. Viral

    Thank you for valuable information .
    Helped to increase knowledge .

  10. Mai

    Thanks for the information! Wanted to ask if you can discuss chaitvandan, how to do it and what to recite. I would really appreciate it. Hope your paryushan is going great

    1. Namrata shah

      Why do we count 8 navkar in morning and seven at night

  11. Anjali Dhruva

    Jai Jinendra!
    Great insightful information. Thank You for all your efforts!:)

    1. Jain Foodie

      You are welcome Anjali – Jai Jinendra.

  12. harendra shah

    how different forms of fasting got evolved? how were they design and by whom?were they laid down by Lord Mahavir?

    1. Hi Harendra, Each Fasts and Tapasyas have their specific reasons and are done to please or achieve various punyas. This is a very large topic and cant be explained here but yes alot of them have been laied down by what bhagawan or their direct disciples did during their days.

  13. Pratik

    Hello,

    My question is, why jain muni eat YOGURT (Dahi). Because it contains a bacteria.

    Thanks,

    Pratik

    1. Hi Pratik, Micro-organisms exists in Water as well – and while yogurt is allowed – we should also make sure it is heated before we consume it. The reason we heat is to avoid multiplying of bacterias. Jain Munis follow a simple rule of consuming food which is offered to them. They do not ask for special foods or can they ideally refuse any foods. It is upto us to make sure we give them food suitable for Jain Dharma.

  14. Gaurav Mehta

    What to eat in and after parna of athai?

    1. Hi Gaurav – It is mentioned in this link: http://www.jainfoodie.com/parna-recipes/

  15. kundan Bothra Ramshri

    अमि्बल एकासन में क्या फर्क होता हैं

    1. kundan Bothra Ramshri

      जैन धर्म के बारे में लाजवाब जानकारी जान के अच्छा लगा

  16. RAKESH SHAH

    1) Once you have recited 3 Navkars (in Muththi vaalavi or handful) & then you took water / food. Afterwards, you have to additionally recite 1 Navkar by joining hands before getting up.

    2) Why Ayambil is to be carried out during Bakrid ?

    1. Hello Rakesh, on bakriid lots of goats are been killed and eaten by muslim community. So its a sad day for us and just to pay condolences we do not eat items which are white in colour(rice, milk etc) People do ayambil on this day to reduce the sins caused by killing the goats.

  17. Geeta Vora

    It is very useful and handy information for me. I am glad this is available to us, I do not have to find some to ask those small questions. This easy and silly to some one but so important for me.

  18. Geeta Vora

    What is difference between Ekasanu and Biyasanu?

    1. Jain Foodie

      Thank you Geeta for your appreciation. The difference between ekasnu and beyasnu is in ekasnu you can sit and eat the meal once in a day and in beyasnu is twice a day. Hope this answers your question.

  19. abc

    How to contact you jain foodie?

  20. abc

    Watch “Facts About AAHARAM Hindi” on YouTube – Facts About AAHARAM Hindi: http://youtu.be/vRkpBgybYoE

  21. abc

    Please delete the link posted once watched and shared with vegetarians as its illegal.

  22. NIKHIL SHAH

    Who Made “SOUL” & Why ? Please Reply…

    1. Rb Pande

      No one made SOUL.. It is just existence.

  23. Anna

    Hi there!

    I wonder if there’s a way to become a Jain if one wasn’t born a Jain.
    I grew up in an agnostic family in Europe and haven’t been baptized. I’m vegan, because I wouldn’t want to hurt any living being, and I consider non-violence the most important and fundamental virtue.
    Do Jains convert people? Could I become a Jain?

    Love,
    Anna

    1. Rb Pande

      Hi Anna,

      Jain is not a religion, IT IS A WAY OF LIFE. Technically anyone who follows path to salvation as said by Jinendra (God) is called Jain. If you live life following basic principals of non-violence and Ahimsa and follow the path to salvation then you are already Jain.

  24. Mansi

    Why in periods ladies can’t go derasar?

  25. Samarth

    Very good information. Where can I find translation of Pachkans? What you have on your site is transliteration i.e. The same words are written in english, hindi and gujarati fonts. Where can I find the meaning of all pachkans?

  26. Kanchan Mehta

    What’s the difference between porsi and nivi

  27. Renu S

    You have written the same explanation for Porsi and Nivi. Are they the same?

  28. Payal Dhoka

    I want a recipe of jain chesse

  29. Dhiren

    reverse siddhi tap? 8 then 7 etc

  30. Poonam

    I want recipes for ayambil ….pls post

  31. Poonam

    Jai jinendra.. Thanks a lot for the knowledge.. Helps the young generation.

  32. Langde Rashmi Subodh

    Very nice info… But still detailed recheck & updation needed.

  33. khushbu

    Does anyone know how many navkarvali equals to 1 ayambol??

  34. Why do we heat yogurt before using it to make kadhi , dhokla etc.?

    1. Hi Usha
      Yogurt or Curd are acceptabe as long as there is minimal bacterial growth. We usually heat yogurt to ensure most of the bacteria are either eradicated or stops growing further and hence avoiding any additional harm. I hope this helps.

      1. Hi I would also like to add here that one should not mix pulses with raw milk and curds (The grains like wheat, Bengal gram, Green gram, black gram, lentil etc. ). This is Viruddha food or prohibited food for body and soul. It becomes dwidal

  35. I have a few questions about Jainism, I have asked other Jains and am still waiting for a reply, perhaps you can offer me assistance:
    1. Can a Jain drink blood?
    2. Can a Jain be a blood donor/receiver?
    3. Can a Jain in any circumstance consume animal flesh?
    4. Can a Jain donate/receive an organ transplant?
    5. Can a Jain use IgG or Fab(2) antivenom (it is made from animal blood)?
    Thank you for your time.
    -Douglas

    1. Let me try to answer but I am not expert who knows absolute truth.
      1) and 3) jain should not drink blood or eat animal flesh. No harm to anyone to be done. For ex: for fun or taste, etc purposes. It should be completely avoided as possible but again it comes to individual how strictly one follows the rules.
      2) & 4) yes Jain can donate organs. In my point of view, we can receive organ from someone if he/she is donating it without any pressure or force. We should not take advantage of someone and get it. Again it comes to individual to decide, as most of time people donate it in pressure or for money or by fraud so we should know the source. Suppose someone died and he donated all his organs then that can be used because he donated it before death willfully and without force.
      5) Some jains use such things to save life or cure serious life threatening situations, only for medical purpose. We cannot avoid harm completely so we try to make it minimal as possible. However, there are jains who prefer to die rather than accepting medicine which is made by killing or torturing animals.

  36. rekha shah

    WHY KARIYATU AND HING MARI UKALO OFFERED FIRST WHEN DOING AYAMBIL?
    BENEFITS OF KARIYATU AND UKALO?
    WHERE DO YOU FIND THEM AND HOW TO MAKE?
    THANK YOU.

  37. Ram

    I am jain, I wanted to know that whether i can soak rice or dal in water after 12:00am or after 4:00 am?

    1. Darshika

      Only after 4 am

    2. Only after 4 am

  38. Praveen

    अतिथि सेवा करनेवाला राजा कौन था

  39. Rahul

    jai Jinendra
    i want to ask you something please clear my doubts and help please
    i am a hindu but me jain aachray ji se kafi parbhawit hu specially jain religion se hi. yo kya mujhe achary ji se tap aaur dharam ki siksha mil sakti hai ya nhi?

    1. Parind Shah

      Sure, you can get from Acharya maharaj.
      Many people already taken the same.

  40. Kajal

    what if some one takes pachkan for upwas and for some reason cannot continue can he or she do Ekasanu or Biyasanu . if yes, than what is the steps to low down the paap or it ….

  41. mansha

    My que.is what is the rply if smbdy say us michchhami dukkadam..

  42. Nikita jain

    As a Jain, I go to temple and do Pooja.
    However now a days I don’t do Pooja of all the idols in the temple, I just do main idols in gambhara.
    My question here is what is more important to do Pooja of all idol or just do few but with Bhav and time.
    Coz I see many people just trying to do as fast as possible.

  43. Neha

    Very informative.
    Was looking for such a forum from a long time.
    Thank you.

  44. Priya jain

    My son 8 years old and he is bad ridden ..what all pachakhan shud I give him. ??.as he can not see..walk..talk..move..only can hear..

  45. Pooja vora

    Ayambil cam be done during menstruation?

  46. Girish Shah

    do we use rocksalt in aambil food?

  47. Girish Shah

    do we use rocksalt in aambil food? ROCK SALT IS AACHIT??

  48. Bhushan shah

    .

  49. POONAM

    Hello everyone my name is poonam pandey i am a north indian girl the person whom i love is jain i like jainism and i love them bcoz they are very polite as per i have seen my ppl who are jain i really want to to follow paryushan from my heart n want to follow this purely i am going to do ekasna as i do gym and work according to my mind set i decided to do ekasna i have few questuon that i know grounded stuffs i cant eat but peanut butter and brown bread and almonds walnut and anar and papaya is allowed to eat on this 8 days of paryushan as he is shevtambar so pls slove my these queries it will be a great help for me michhami dukkadam

  50. kinjal

    What is kheer samudra fast?

  51. Priyanci

    Me hu ek kulkar jiske name me hi hai saflta btao mera name? Is qution ka kya answer hoga

  52. Keerthi solanki

    We can do beyashna after navkarshi

  53. Lokesh

    In Jain’s if one want to fast previous day till what time one can drink water

  54. Keval Morabia

    Which subway sauces are jain??
    Is jain pizza available in dominoes and pizza hut??

  55. विजय गुर्जर

    नमस्कार !
    आपसे निवेदन है कि मेरी एक शंका दूर करें कि क्या अन्य धर्म के किसी पूर्व स्थापित धार्मिक स्थल की भूमि पर जैन समाज द्वारा कब्जा किया जा सकता है और उस देवस्थल को घेरकर जैन धर्म का धार्मिक स्थल बनाया जा सकता है ?

        किसी भी ऐसे स्थान जहाँ पूर्व में अन्य धर्म का देवस्थान है, उस पर जैन पूजा स्थल स्थापित करने को लेकर आपका जैन दर्शन क्या कहता है ? और अगर जाने-अनजाने में आपके समाज द्वारा अन्य धर्म की भावनाओं को आहत करके/ पूजा स्थल पर कब्जा करके जैन धार्मिक स्थल बना लिया जाता है तो क्या उस स्थिति में उस जैन स्थल को आपका धर्म पूजा योग्य मानता है ?

      मेरी उपरोक्त सभी शंकाओं का निवारण करने की कोशिश करियेगा।

  56. Nimesh Modi

    WHY CANNOT EAT FOOD AT SOME ONE DEATH CEREMONY ???

  57. Sap

    Can v stop oli tap in between

  58. Sourabh Jain

    Sir according me, in nivi sabhi vidai ka tyag karna hota hai what you wrote in nivi is for ekasana

  59. Why do Jains fast on Ashtami /Chaudas?

  60. Parind Shah

    Excellent effrots Sir!

  61. Pooja Balar

    Why Jains are asked not to eat any white appearing items like rice, milk, etc on Eid? Please elaborate it! Thanks.

  62. Sapna

    What is Kheer Samudra tap n how to do it

  63. Ruchi

    I am follower of jainsim (shewtamber) and I have few questions …
    1) what is the complete vidhi of doing ekasana of 108 parsavnathbhagwan including the path ?
    2) can we take medicine during upvas?
    3)chunari vart vidhi during paryushan?

  64. Piyush gangar

    Meaning of packhans not given.
    Please explain all packhans

  65. DIPESH MEHTA

    Jai Jinendra,

    Kindly advise how KHEER SAMUNDRA works.

    And is there SMALL and BIG KHEER SAMUNDRA.

    Do advise URGENTLY.

  66. Roshni

    During paryushana, if a person performs 7 ekasanas and 1 upavas, what tap is it called ?

  67. Roshni

    During paryushana, if a person performs 7 ekasnas and 1 upavas what tap is it called ?

  68. Bipin Shah

    Can anybody say eight day upavas is called aththai

    But for two days is called Chathth for 3 day Aththam

    How this words came
    Chathth and Aththai ? Or any special signification

  69. Megha

    1) Is mushroom considered as living being and hence not consumed?
    2) Even diary products results in a lot of pain in animals then why is this ok to consume?

  70. Akshita shah

    What if dharna abhigraha pachkan is broken by someone by mistake ?

  71. Narendra Kumar Doshi

    How many vedna is equal to upwas?

  72. Payal karnavat

    Why is navkarshi to be followed

  73. શ્રેયાબેન

    ઉપવાસ પૂર્ણ થઈ જાય પછી પારણા કરતા પહેલા લેવામાં આવતા પચખાણ

  74. Chandu

    Marrying Hindu girl is crct in Jain’s?
    Plz reply for my comment

  75. Ritesh Sheth

    Thanks.
    What is the pachkhan for any dharna abhighara?

    1. English: Dharanaa, Abhiggaham, Pachchakkhaai (Pachchakkhaami), Annatthanaabhogenam, Sahasaagaarenam, Mahattaraagarenam, Savvasamaahivattiyaa-Gaarenam, Vosirai (Vosiraami).

      Gujarati: ધારણા અભિગ્ગહં પચ્ચક્ ખાઇ (પચ્ચક્ ખામિ); અન્નત્થણાભોગેણં, સહસાગારેણં, મહત્તરાગારેણં, સવ્વસમાહિ-વત્તિયાગારેણં વોસિરઈ (વોસિરામિ)

      Hindi: धारणा अभिग्गहं पच्चक् खाइ (पच्चक् खामि); अन्नत्थणाभोगेणं, सहसागारेणं, महत्तरागारेणं, सव्वसमाहि-वत्तियागारेणं वोसिरई (वोसिरामि).

  76. Hitesh Vora

    Very good information. The information given for “Nivi” is actually for “Navkarshi” I think Nivi is kind of Aymbil with some relaxation for using Dahi/yogurt. Please correct after confirmation.

  77. Ashish

    What is the daily schedule of Jain monks? What do they do hour by hour in a day?

  78. Anjali

    How many upwas calculated for daily chouvihar ?

  79. Pawan

    If I drank water at 4 am in the morning and after waking up at 8am I take pachkkan of Porsi, will it be counted ?

  80. Nidhi jain

    Why only 3 navkar recite before started eating in any kind of pachhkhan

  81. Sheetal

    I want to know that how it upvas,navkarsi,ratri bhojan k tyag n all relates to our health n how to it benefits us today regarding our health ??

    1. Pakshal Lodha

      It detoxifies your complete body .

      Unless you experience , you would not be able to understand its importance

  82. Ms. Shiromani Bajaj

    If Aymbil ka pakhan lene ke bad galti se Roti per Ghee laga kar kha liya to kya karna chahiye.

  83. Anon

    Hi, my mom bought two rose plants to put in my garden, total about 4500 rupees expenditure. In my garden, I try to leave undisturbed as much as possible and have put plants good for insects, bees, birds, etc. However, the rose plants – since they are not natural but human bred – are vulnerable to tiny insects called rose aphids; these insects can completely cover the plant and kill it. Sometimes, ladybirds and other insects will eat and control the aphids. But right now, not so much, so I continuously crush and remove the aphids from the rose. In general, as a vegan I try my best not to harm life, but this is making me feel guilty. Is it ok for me to do this?
    Also, I grow vegetables in my garden to reduce market buying and so it’s better for environment, but in doing so I have to pull up weeds around the vegetable plants – is this wrong?
    Thank you

  84. Ashish

    What is Muththi vaalavi? How to do that?

  85. Nileshkumar Chhallani

    When does navkarsi start ? i.e. start time for navkarsi ?
    Also, do you need to be awake for entire 48 minutes after sunrise for navkarsi ?

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